In August 1861, the United States in 2018, U21, a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the United States first in the world in terms of the scope and quality of higher education and 15th when GDP was a factor.  When it comes to public spending on higher education, the United States lags behind other OECD (Organisation for Co-operation and Development) countries, but spends more per student than the OECD average and more than all countries on public and private spending combined.   In 2018[update], student loan debt exceeded $1.5 trillion.   Members of the Republican Congress and Free Soil regularly introduced bills and resolutions related to the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Act, but the law remained in effect until the start of the Civil War. Only on the 28th. In June 1864, the two Fugitive Slavic Acts were repealed by an act of Congress. The Underground Railroad reached its peak in the 1850s, when many slaves fled to Canada to escape American jurisdiction. Refugee slave laws existed as early as 1643 in America and in the New England Confederacy, and slave laws were later enacted in several of the original 13 colonies. In 2018, there were nearly 90 million immigrants to the United States and children of immigrants born in the United States, representing 28% of the total population of the United States.  The United States has a diverse population; 37 ancestral groups have more than one million members.
 White Americans of European descent, primarily Germans, Irish, English, Italians, Poles, and French, including white Hispanics and Latin American Latin Americans, are the largest racial group with 73.1% of the population. African Americans are the largest racial minority and third-largest ancestry group in the country, accounting for about 13 percent of the entire United States. The law contributed to the country`s growing polarization on the issue of slavery and was one of the factors that led to the civil war. The Fugitive Slave Act, or Fugitive Slave Law, was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the compromise of 1850 between the interests of the South in slavery and the free polluters of the North. The 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a total area of 3,119,885 square miles (8,080,470 km2). Of this area, 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940 km2) is adjacent land, representing 83.65% of the total area of the United States.   Hawaii, which occupies an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean in southwestern North America, has an area of 10,931 square miles (28,311 km2). The five populated but unincorporated areas of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States Virgin Islands together account for 9,185 square miles (23,789 km2).  In terms of area only, the United States ranks third behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada.  The Transcendentalists, led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, founded the first major American philosophical movement.
After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce and then William James and John Dewey were leaders in the development of pragmatism. In the 20th century, the work of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty and later Noam Chomsky brought analytic philosophy to the forefront of American philosophical science. John Rawls and Robert Nozick also cited a revival of political philosophy. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 ordered that states to which escaped slaves had fled be required to return them to their masters upon discovery and to subject those who assisted fugitive slaves to criminal penalties. The first Fugitive Slave Act was enacted by Congress in 1793, but when the northern states abolished slavery, the law was rarely enforced. The southern states bitterly resented the North`s attitude toward slavery, which eventually manifested itself in the existence of the Underground Railroad, an agreement by which abolitionists helped fugitive slaves gain freedom.
The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890.  Most of these conflicts ended with the surrender of Indian territory and its restriction to Indian reserves. In addition, the Trail of Tears in the 1830s illustrated the Indian resettlement policy that forcibly resettled Indians. As a result, the area under mechanical cultivation has been further expanded and surpluses for international markets have been increased.  Expansion on the continent included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.  In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the United States annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines were ceded by Spain the same year after the Spanish-American War.  American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.  The U.S. Virgin Islands were purchased by Denmark in 1917.  After its defeat at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781, Britain signed a peace treaty. U.S.
sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country obtained all the land east of the Mississippi. However, tensions with Britain persisted and led to the War of 1812, which resulted in a draw.  Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 by writing the Constitution of the United States, ratified in the conventions of the states in 1788. This constitution, which came into force in 1789, reorganized the federal government into three branches, according to the principle of the creation of salutary checks and balances. George Washington, who led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president to be elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, which prohibits the restriction of individual freedoms by the federal government and guarantees a number of legal protections, was passed in 1791.  By 1843, several hundred slaves a year had successfully fled north, making slavery an unstable institution in border states.  After increasing pressure from Southern politicians, Congress passed a revised Fugitive Slave Act in 1850. In 1855, the Wisconsin Supreme Court became the only supreme court in the state to declare the Fugitive Slave Act unconstitutional, following a case involving fugitive slave Joshua Glover and Sherman Booth, leading efforts to thwart Glover`s recapture.
In 1859, in Ableman v. Booth, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the State Court.  At home, the United States had experienced continued economic expansion after the Second World War and rapid growth in its population and middle class […].